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BIO101T Wk 2 – Exam #2: Cancer Unit

by adminin on March 31, 2021
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ENV100T Week 4, MKT421T Week 3, MKT421 Week 2, RES720 Week6, RES720 Week5, RES720 Week4, RES720 Week3, RES720 Week2, RES720 Week1, MFCC556 Week 6, MFCC556 Week5, MFCC556 Week 5, MFCC556 Week4, MKT421T Week1, MFCC556 Week 4, MFCC556 Week3, MFCC556 Week 3, MFCC556 Week2, MFCC556 Week 2, MFCC556 Week 1, OPS350 Week 5, OPS350 Week 4, OPS350 Week 3, OPS350 Week 2, OPS350 Week 1, HRM300T Week 5, HRM300T Week 4, HRM300T Week 2, HRM300T Week 1, DOC741 Week 6, DOC741 Week 5, DOC741 Week 4, DOC741 Week 2, DOC741 Week1, DOC741 Week 1, HSN575 Week8, HSN575 Week 8, HSN575 Week 7, HSN575 Week 6, HSN575 Week 3, HSN575 Week 2, LDR531 Week4, NSG511 Week 6, MBA5001 Week 5, MBA5001 Week5, MBA5001 Week 4, MBA5001 Week4, MBA5001 Week 3, MBA5001 Week3, MBA5001 Week 2, MBA5001 Week2, MBA5001 Week1, MBA5001 Week 1, PSY211 Week 5, PSY211 Week 4, PSY211 Week 3, PSY211 Week 2, PSY211 Week 1, DOC720R Day3, BSA375 Week 5, BSA375 Week 4, BSA375 Week2, BSA375 Week 2, CMGT445 Week 5, CMGT445 Week 4, CMGT445 Week 3, CMGT445 Week 1, BSA412 Week 5, BSA412 Week5, BSA412 Week4, BSA412 Week 4, BSA412 Week 3, BSA412 Week2, BSA412 Week 2, BSA412 Week 1, CMGT420 Week 5, CMGT420 Week5, CMGT420 Week4, CMGT420 Week 4, CMGT420 Week 3, CMGT420 Week3, CMGT420 Week2, CMGT420 Week 2, RES710 Week8, RES710 Week7, RES710 Week6, RES710 Week5, RES710 Week4, RES710 Week3, RES710 Week2, LDR711A Week 7, LDR711A Week 5, LDR711A Week 3, CPMGT300 Week 5, LAW531T Week 6, LAW531T Week 5, LAW531T Week 4, LAW531T Week 3, LAW531T Week 2, ISCOM383 Week 4, ISCOM383 Week 3, ISCOM383 Week 2, ISCOM383 Week 1, HRM531 Week 2, CNSL556 Week 3, CNSL556 Week 2, STR581 Week 6, STR581 Week3, HSN565 Week5, MGT312T Week 5, MGT312T Week 4, MGT312T Week 3, FIN571 Week 5, LDR726 Week8, LDR726 Week 8, LDR726 Week 7, LDR726 Week 6, LDR726 Week4, LDR726 Week 5, LDR726 Week 4, LDR726 Week 2, LDR726 Week 1, CCMH515CA Week 8, CCMH515CA Week6, CCMH515CA Week 6, CCMH515CA Week 4, CCMH515CA Week 3, CCMH515CA Week 2, CCMH515CA Week 1, LEA5125 Week 1, ENT588 Week 3, CCMH548 Week 6, CCMH548 Week6, CCMH548 Week5, CCMH548 Week 5, CCMH548 Week 3, CCMH548 Week 2, CCMH548 Week 1, CCMH544 Week 8, CCMH544 Week 7, CCMH544 Week 6, CCMH544 Week 5, CCMH544 Week 4, CCMH544 Week 3, CCMH544 Week 2, CCMH544 Week 1, GEN480 Week 5, GEN480 Week4, GEN480 Week 4, GEN480 Week 3, GEN480 Week 2, GEN480 Week1, GEN480 Week 1, ACC492 Week 5, ACC492 Week5, ACC492 Week 4, ACC492 Week4, ACC492 Week3, ACC492 Week 3, ACC492 Week 2, ACC492 Week2, ACC492 Week1, OPS571 Week1, OPS571 Week 2, OPS571 Week3, OPS571 Week4, OPS571 Week 6, REL133 Week4, REL133 Week3, REL133 Week2, REL133 Week1, HUM150 Week 5, HUM150 Week 4, HUM150 Week 3, HUM150 Week 1, HUM150 Week 2, HSN570 Week 5, HSN570 Week 4, HSN570 Week 3, HSN570 Week 2, HSN570 Week 1, HSN565 Week 6, HSN565 Week 5, HSN565 Week 3, HSN565 Week 2, HSN565 Week 1, MGT420 Week 5, MGT420 Week 3, MGT420 Week 1, DOC720R Day 3, DOC720R Day 2, DOC720R Day 1, RES710 Week 8, RES710 Week 7, RES710 Week 6, RES710 Week 5, RES710 Week 4, RES710 Week 3, RES710 Week 2, RES710 Week 1, RES709 Week 8, RES709 Week 7, RES709 Week 6, RES709 Week 5, RES709 Week 4, RES709 Week 3, RES709 Week 2, RES709 Week 1, COMM110 Week5, COMM110 Week 2, COMM110 Week1, COMM400 Week 5, COMM400 Week4, COMM400 Week 4, COMM400 Week 2, COMM400 Week1, COMM400 Week 1, CPMGT305 Week 5, CPMGT305 Week 4, CPMGT305 Week 3, CPMGT305 Week 2, CPMGT305 Week 1, CPMGT302 Week 5, CPMGT302 Week 4, CPMGT302 Week 3, CPMGT302 Week 2, CPMGT302 Week 2, CPMGT302 Week 1, CPMGT301 Week 5, CPMGT301 Week 4, CPMGT301 Week 2, CPMGT301 Week 1, GBM380 Week 4, GBM380 Week 2, QNT351 Week 1, ETH316 Week 3, ETH316 Week2, ETH316 Week 2, ETH316 Week 1, DOC788 Week 2, DOC788 Week 1, LDR736 Week 8, LDR736 Week 7, LDR736 Week 6, LDR736 Week 4, LDR736 Week 3, LDR736 Week 2, LDR736 Week 1, DOC723 Week 6, DOC723 Week 5, DOC723 Week 4, DOC723 Week 3, DOC723 Week 2, DOC723 Week 1, ORG727 Week 8, ORG727 Week 5, ORG727 Week 4, ORG727 Week 3, ORG727 Week 2, ORG727 Week 1, MGT726 Week 7, MGT726 Week 4, MGT726 Week 3, MGT726 Week 1, RES720 Week 8, RES720 Week 7, RES720 Week 6, RES720 Week 5, RES720 Week 4, RES720 Week 3, RES720 Week 2, RES720 Week 1, MHA516 Week 6, MHA516 Week 5, MHA516 Week 4, MHA516 Week 3, MHA516 Week 2, MHA505 Week 6, MHA505 Week 5, MHA505 Week 4, MHA505 Week 3, MHA505 Week 2, CCMH535 Week 6, CCMH535 Week 4, CCMH535 Week 2, CCMH535 Week 1, CCMH525 Week 7, CCMH525 Week 6, CCMH525 Week 4, CCMH525 Week 3, CCMH525 Week 2, CCMH525 Week 1, CCMH551 Week 6, CCMH551 Week 5, CCMH551 Week 4, CCMH551 Week 3, CCMH551 Week 2, CCMH551 Week 1, HCS499 Week 4, HCS499 Week3, HCS499 Week 3, HCS499 Week 2, ENG313 Week 2, ENG313 Week1, ENG313 Week 1, PSY420 Week5, PSY420 Week 5, PSY420 Week 4, PSY420 Week3, PSY420 Week 3, PSY420 Week 2, PSY420 Week 1, PSY410 Week 5, PSY410 Week 3, PSY410 Week 2, PSY410 Week1, PSY410 Week 1, MKT440 Week 5, MKT440 Week 4, MKT440 Week 3, MKT440 Week 1, MGT373 Week 5, MGT373 Week 4, MGT373 Week 3, MGT373 Week 2, MGT373 Week 1, MGT411 Week 5, MGT411 Week 3, MGT411 Week 2, MGT411 Week 1, OPS571 Week 5, OPS571 Week 4, OPS571 Week 1, MKT593 Week 4, MKT593 Week 2, MKT593 Week 1, MKT562 Week 4, MKT562 Week 3, MKT562 Week 2, MKT562 Week 1, MKT544 Week 5, MKT544 Week 4, MKT544 Week 3, MKT544 Week 1, MKT554 Week 4, MKT554 Week 2, MKT554 Week 1, GLG220 Week5, GLG220 Week4, GLG220 Week2, GLG220 Week1, ENT588 Week5, ENT588 Week 5, ENT588 Week 4, ENT588 Week3, ENT588 Week2, ENT588 Week1, MFCC551CA Week8, MFCC551CA Week7, MFCC551CA Week6, MFCC551CA Week5, MFCC551CA Week4, MFCC551CA Week3, MFCC551CA Week2, MFCC551CA Week1, CCMH506 Week7, CCMH506 Week6, CCMH506 Week5, CCMH506 Week4, CCMH506 Week3, CCMH506 Week2, CCMH506 Week1, CCMH504 Week6, CCMH504 Week5, CCMH504 Week4, CCMH504 Week1, CCMH510 Week5, CCMH510 Week3, CCMH510 Week2, CCMH510 Week1, FIN571 Week5, FIN571 Week2, BIS221T Week 5, ENV100T Week 2, ENG223 Week5, ENG223 Week4, ENG223 Week3, ENG223 Week 2, ENG223 Week2, ENG223 Week1, PHL458 Week5, PHL458 Week4, PHL458 Week3, PHL458 Week2, PHL458 Week1, HST175 Week5, HST175 Week4, HST175 Week3, HST175 Week2, HST175 Week1, POL115 Week 3, POL115 Week1, POL115 Week2, HUM105 Week3, HUM105 Week2, HUM105 Week1, SOC100 Week4, SOC100 Week3, SOC100 Week2, SOC100 Week1, PSY203 Week 5, PSY203 Week4, PSY203 Week 4, PSY203 Week3, PSY203 Week 3, PSY203 Week 2, PSY203 Week 1, FIN486 Week4, FIN486 Week 2, SCI201 Week2, SCI201 Week 1, SCI201 Week1, FIN366 Week5, FIN366 Week 5, FIN366 Week4, FIN366 Week 4, FIN366 Week3, FIN366 Week 3, FIN366 Week2, FIN366 Week 2, FIN366 Week1, FIN366 Week 1, FIN419 Week 1, ISCOM476 Week5, ISCOM476 Week3, ISCOM374 Week 5, ISCOM374 Week4, ISCOM374 Week 3, ISCOM374 Week3, ISCOM374 Week2, ISCOM473 Week5, ISCOM473 Week4, ISCOM473 Week2, ISCOM473 Week1, ISCOM424 Week5, ISCOM424 Week4, ISCOM424 Week3, ISCOM424 Week 2, ISCOM424 Week2, ISCOM424 Week1, ARTS125 Week5, ARTS125 Week3, ARTS125 Week2, ARTS125 Week1, HRM498 Week5, HRM498 Week4, HRM498 Week3, HRM498 Week 2, HRM498 Week2, HRM498 Week1, BIS221T Week2, BIS221T Week1, MTH216 Week3, MTH216 Week2, PSY405 Week5, PSY405 Week 3, PSY405 Week3, PSY405 Week2, PSY405 Week1, PSY110 Week 5, PSY110 Week 4, PSY110 Week 3, PSY110 Week2, PSY110 Week1, CJS201 Week 2, CJS201 Week5, CJS201 Week4, CJS201 Week3, CJS201 Week2, CJS201 Week1, ACC491 Week5 team, ACC491 Week5, ACC491 Week 4, ACC491 Week4, ACC491 Week 3, ACC491 Week3, ACC491 Week 1, ACC491 Week1, ECO365 Week1, COMM315 Week5, COMM315 Week4, COMM315 Week3, COMM315 Week2, COMM315 Week1, SOC262 Week5, SOC262 Week4, SOC262 Week3, SOC262 Week2, SOC262 Week1, MGT230 Week 5, MGT230 Week 4, MGT230 Week5, MGT230 Week4, MGT230 Week3, MGT230 Week2, MGT230 Week1, MKT421 Week5, MPA533 Week 5, MPA533 Week 4, MPA533 Week 3, HRM310 Week 5, HRM310 Week5, HRM310 Week4, HRM310 Week3, HRM310 Week2, HRM310 Week1, HRM324 Week5, HRM324 Week4, HRM324 Week3, HRM324 Week2, HRM324 Week1, MGT418 Week 5, MGT418 Week5, MGT418 Week4, MGT418 Week3, MGT418 Week2, MGT418 Week 1, MGT418 Week1, HSN560 Week6, HSN560 Week5, HSN560 Week4, HSN560 Week3, HSN560 Week2, HSN560 Week1, FIN422 Week 5, FIN422 Week 4, FIN422 Week5, FIN422 Week4, FIN422 Week3, FIN422 Week2, FIN422 Week1, FIN402 Week5, FIN402 Week4, FIN402 Week3, FIN402 Week2, FIN402 Week1, IT200 Week 4, IT200 Week5, IT200 Week4, IT200 Week3, IT200 Week2, IT200 Week 1, GEO180 Week 4, GEO180 Week5, GEO180 Week4, GEO180 Week3, GEO180 Week 2, GEO180 Week2, GEO180 Week1, ISCOM305 Week 5, ISCOM305 Week5, ISCOM305 Week 2, GEN201 Week 5, GEN201 Week 4, GEN201 Week 3, MGT445 Week5, MGT445 Week4, MGT445 Week3, MGT445 Week2, MGT445 Week1, MPA533 Week 6, MPA533 Week5, MPA533 Week2, MPA593 Week6, MPA593 Week5, MPA593 Week4, MPA593 Week3, MPA593 Week2, MPA593 Week1, MPA583 Week6, MPA583 Week5, MPA583 Week4, MPA583 Week3, MPA583 Week2, MPA583 Week1, MPA563 Week6, MPA563 Week5, MPA563 Week4, MPA563 Week3, MPA563 Week2, MPA563 Week1, PSY360 Week5, PSY360 Week4, PSY360 Week3, PSY360 Week2, PSY360 Week1, HM475 Week 4, HM475 Week5, HM475 Week4, HM475 Week3, HM475 Week2, HM475 Week1, MPATM543 Week6, MPATM543 Week5, MPATM543 Week4, MPATM543 Week3, MPATM543 Week2, MPATM543 Week1, MPA573 Week 3, MPA573 Week6, MPA573 Week5, MPA573 Week4, MPA573 Week3, MPA573 Week2, MPA573 Week1, MPA543 Week6, MPA543 Week5, MPA543 Week4, MPA543 Week3, MPA543 Week2, MPA543 Week1, HRMPA533 Week6, HRMPA533 Week5, HRMPA533 Week4, HRMPA533 Week3, HRMPA533 Week2, HRMPA533 Week1, LAWPA513 Week 5, LAWPA513 Week6, LAWPA513 Week5, LAWPA513 Week4, LAWPA513 Week3, LAWPA513 Week2, LAWPA513 Week1, HSN525 Week8, HSN525 Week7, HSN525 Week6, HSN525 Week5, HSN525 Week4, HSN525 Week3, HSN525 Week2, HSN525 Week1, NSG550 Week6, NSG550 Week5, NSG550 Week4, NSG550 Week3, NSG550 Week2, NSG550 Week1, MPA533 Week6, MPA533 Week5, MPA533 Week4, MPA533 Week3, MPA533 Week2, MPA533 Week1, NSG513 Week6, NSG513 Week5, NSG513 Week4, NSG513 Week3, NSG513 Week2, NSG513 Week1, NSG512 Week 6, NSG512 Week6, NSG512 Week5, NSG512 Week4, NSG512 Week3, NSG512 Week2, NSG512 Week1, NSG511 Week6, NSG511 Week5, NSG511 Week4, NSG511 Week3, NSG511 Week2, NSG511 Week1, HCS529 Week5, HCS529 Week4, HCS529 Week3, HCS529 Week2, HCS529 Week1, HCS535 Week6, HCS535 Week5, HCS535 Week4, HCS535 Week3, HCS535 Week2, HCS535 Week1, HCS552 Week6, HCS552 Week5, HCS552 Week4, HCS552 Week3, HCS552 Week2, HCS552 Week1, PSY340 Week 2, PSY340 Week5, PSY340 Week4, PSY340 Week3, PSY340 Week2, PSY340 Week1, PSY335 Week 2, PSY335 Week5, PSY335 Week4, PSY335 Week3, PSY335 Week2, PSY335 Week1, ETH120 Week5, ETH120 Week4, ETH120 Week 4, ETH120 Week2, ETH120 Week1, DOC705R Day 2, DOC705R Day5, DOC705R Day4, DOC705R Day3, DOC705R Day2, DOC705R Day1, MGT314 Week5, MGT314 Week4, MGT314 Week 4, MGT314 Week2, MGT314 Week1, SOC333 Week 1, SOC333 Week5, SOC333 Week4, SOC333 Week3, SOC333 Week2, SOC333 Week1, PSY310 Week 5, PSY310 Week5, PSY310 Week4, PSY310 Week3, PSY310 Week2, PSY310 Week1, PSY305 Week5, PSY305 Week4, PSY305 Week3, PSY305 Week2, PSY305 Week1, COMM102 Week5, COMM102 Week4, COMM102 Week3, COMM102 Week2, COMM102 Week1, PSY245 Week 4, PSY245 Week 3, PSY245 Week5, PSY245 Week4, PSY245 Week3, PSY245 Week2, PSY245 Week1, PSY215 Week 5, PSY215 Week5, PSY215 Week4, PSY215 Week3, PSY215 Week2, PSY215 Week1, MPA553 Week6, MPA553 Week5, MPA553 Week4, MPA553 Week3, MPA553 Week2, ACC574 Week6, ACC574 Week5, ACC574 Week4, ACC574 Week3, ACC574 Week2, ACC574 Week1, QNT562 Week6, QNT562 Week5, QNT562 Week4, QNT562 Week3, QNT562 Week2, QNT562 Week1, BIS320 Week 4, BIS320 Week 3, BIS320 Week5, BIS320 Week4, BIS320 Week3, BIS320 Week2, BIS320 Week1, PSY250 Week1, PSY250 Week5, PSY250 Week4, PSY250 Week3, PSY250 Week2, LTC310 Week5, LTC310 Week4, LTC310 Week3, LTC310 Week2, CPMGT300 Week5, CPMGT300 Week4, CPMGT300 Week3, CPMGT300 Week2, CPMGT300 Week1, SOC315 Week5, SOC315 Week4, SOC315 Week 3, SOC315 Week3, SOC315 Week2, SOC315 Week1, LTC328 Week5, LTC328 Week3, LTC328 Week2, LTC315 Week4, LTC315 Week3, LTC315 Week2, ACC561 Week6, ACC561 Week 3, ACC561 Week3, ACC561 Week2, ACC561 Week1, QRB501 Week4, QRB501 Week2, HCS433 Week3, HCS433 Week2, HCS437 Week5, HCS437 Week4, HCS437 Week3, HCS437 Week2, HCS465 Week5, HCS465 Week3, HCS465 Week 2, HCS465 Week2, HCS451 Week5, HCS451 Week3, HCS451 Week2, HCS483 Week4, HCS483 Week 4, HCS483 Week 3, HCS483 Week3, HCS457 Week 5, HCS457 Week5, HCS457 Week4, HCS490 Week5, HCS490 Week 4, HCS490 Week4, HCS490 Week2, HCS385 Week 5, HCS385 Week5, HCS385 Week4, HCS385 Week3, POL215 Week5, POL215 Week 3, POL215 Week2, POL215 Week1, HST206 Week 5, HST206 Week4, HST206 Week3, HST206 Week1, LDR531 Week6, LDR531 Week 5, LDR531 Week5, LDR531 Week4, LDR531 Week 3, LDR531 Week3, LDR531 Week2, LDR531 Week1, HRM531 Week5, HRM531 Week4, HRM531 Week2, HRM531 Week1, HST276 Week5, HST276 Week4, HST276 Week3, HST276 Week1, ENG135 Week4, ENG135 Week5, ENG135 Week3, ENG135 Week 3, ENG135 Week2, ENG135 Week1, SOC110 Week5, SOC110 Week4, CJA345 Week1, CJA345 Week2, CJA345 Week 2, CJA345 Week3, CJA345 Week 3, CJA345 Week4, CJA345 Week 4, CJA345 Week5, CJA345 Week 5, MGT448 Week 4, MGT448 Week 3, MGT448 Week5, MGT448 Week4, MGT448 Week3, MGT448 Week2, MGT448 Week1, ISCOM305 Week 4, ISCOM305 Week 3,ISCOM305 Week 2, ISCOM305 Week5, ISCOM305 Week4, ISCOM305 Week3, ISCOM305 Week2, ISCOM305 Week1, PSY280 Week4, PSY280 Week3, PSY280 Week2, PSY280 Week1, PSY280 Week5, PSY280 Week5, PSY225 Week 5, PSY225 Week 4, PSY225 Week5, PSY225 Week4, PSY225 Week3, PSY225 Week2

Angiogenesis contributes to carcinogenesis because it

• causes apoptosis in tumor cells.
• allows tumor cells to spread to other parts of the body.
• causes additional mutations to occur in tumor cells.
• causes blood vessels to grow into the tumor.
• allows tumor cells to invade underlying tissues.

Rebecca found out that she has a mass of dividing cells called a tumor in her ovaries. She has had tests and is returning to the doctor. Which of the following would be the best news that Rebecca could receive from her doctor?

• The tumor has metastasized and invaded neighboring tissue.
• The cells are cancerous and are in situ.
• It is a benign tumor.
• It is a malignant tumor.
• It is malignant ovarian cancer.

As wavelength increases, the associated energy

• decreases.
• remains the same.
• increases.

There are three major parts within each DNA nucleotide. Of these three, which is responsible for the storage of genetic information?

• its phosphate bonds
• its deoxyribose sugar
• its four nitrogen bases
• its ribose sugar

Calcium moves into bones as new bone cells are formed, and moves out of bones as special cells break the bones down. Hormones that are produced by the thyroid and parathyroid glands help regulate this process. As bone cancer causes bones to break down, what might be observed in a patient’s body chemistry?

• Calcium would be released into the blood stream, causing high calcium levels.
• Calcium would be absorbed into the bones, causing low blood calcium levels.
• Calcium levels would always remain constant, as the thyroid and parathyroid glands would compensate.

Which of the following statements best describes the benefits of radiation therapy?

• All of the choices are correct.
• Radiation therapy can be directed against specific cells and tissues within the body.
• Radiation therapy may shrink tumors, making them easier to remove surgically.
• Radiation damages the DNA within cancer cells, either slowing down cell division or stopping it altogether.
• Radiation therapy can be combined with other therapies, including chemotherapy.

During which stage of the cell cycle do the chromosomes duplicate?

• anaphase
• telophase
• interphase
• prophase
• mitosis

Which of the following is the correct sequence for the cell cycle? Assume the cell has just completed cell division.

rev: 12_20_2019_QC_CS-194240

• G2-G1-S-M
• G1-G2-S-M
• G1-S-G2-M
• G2-M-S-G1
• S-M-G1-G2

Some of the drugs used in chemotherapy work by

• producing kinases.
• causing cells to divide quickly.
• preventing spindle formation.
• inhibiting cytokinesis.
• increasing telomeres.

Which of the following statements is true regarding stage 3 cancers?

• The tumor has spread to distant organs.
• The tumor is smaller than 2 cm and has not been detected in any lymph nodes.
• Stage 3 cancers are defined solely based on the size of the tumor.
• The cancer has become invasive and affects more of the surrounding tissue, causing swelling, inflammation, or ulcers.

Which of the following is true of the chromosomes in a cell undergoing mitosis?

• They are loosely coiled.
• They are found within the cytoplasm.
• They are available for RNA synthesis.
• They are present in the haploid number.
• They have histones bound to them.

Which of the following is the correct sequence of events for an altered protein that is secreted from the cell?

• smooth endoplasmic reticulum – plasma membrane – Golgi apparatus – ribosome
• rough endoplasmic reticulum – Golgi apparatus – plasma membrane
• Golgi apparatus – smooth endoplasmic reticulum – plasma membrane
• Golgi apparatus – ribosome – plasma membrane
• nucleus – smooth endoplasmic reticulum – Golgi apparatus

Cancer can originate in any area of the body. However, death rates are often highest for those cancers involving organs within the digestive, cardiovascular, and respiratory systems. This is most likely because

• there are no treatment options for these types of cancer.
• these organs are all involved in processing food, which is vital to our survival.
• these organs are larger and therefore harder to treat.
• these organs play vital roles in maintaining homeostasis.

Cancer occurs when

• both uncontrolled cell division and stimulation of apoptosis occurs.
• cells are unable to divide because of a mutation.
• faulty spindle fibers are unable to pull chromatids apart.
• apoptosis occurs.
• the regulation of the cell cycle is lost and uncontrolled cell division occurs.

Sarah has thyroid cancer. As part of her treatment, she is given an injection of radioactive iodine (I-131) that will be absorbed by her thyroid, helping target those cells. This is an example of

• interstitial brachytherapy.
• low-dose internal radiation.
• systemic radiation therapy.
• external radiation therapy.
• chemotherapy.

Joan and her doctor notice a suspicious lump in her breast. Joan also has a family history of breast cancer. Which of the following is not a likely next step as they work to determine the cause of the lump?

• genetic testing for mutations in the BRCA1 gene
• taking a biopsy of the lump to look for the presence of cancer cells
• performing a mastectomy to remove all breast tissue in that breast
• performing a diagnostic mammogram

Blood tests can provide information on blood chemistry in order to determine if the organs of the body are functioning correctly. Which of the following test results would be least likely to cause the suspicion of cancer?

• a drastic increase in calcium levels in the body
• elevated levels of CA 125 protein
• elevated liver enzyme levels
• negative findings of CA 15.3 (none is present in the blood)
• presence of specific cancer antibodies

If tumor cells have a faulty, nonfunctional proteinase, they will be unable to undergo which of the following processes?

• apoptosis
• mitosis
• angiogenesis
• metastasis
• mutation

Within a negative feedback loop,

• the sensor sends data to the control center.
• the stimulus sends data to the control center.
• the sensor causes an effector to return conditions to normal.
• the effector causes a response.
• the control center detects a change in the internal environment.

Growth factors work as signalling molecules. When they bind to receptors on target cells, they function to

• inactivate proto-oncogenes, stimulating cell division.
• inactivate proto-oncogenes, halting cell division.
• activate proto-oncogenes, halting cell division.
• activate proto-oncogenes, stimulating cell division.

Immunotherapy works on the basis of

• using radiation to destroy the DNA of cancerous cells, preventing them from further cell division.
• helping the body to distinguish “self” cells from “non-self” cells and to destroy only the “nonself” cells.
• using chemicals to target cancerous cells, preventing them from further cell division.
• helping the body to distinguish “self” cells from “nonself” cells and to destroy only the “self” cells.
• using small packets of radioactive materials that are injected into the bloodstream to remove cancerous cells in the bloodstream.

If cancer is discovered at an early stage, surgical removal is most likely used as a first means of treatment before chemotherapy. This is because chemotherapy agents

• can cause negative side effects including nausea, and hair loss.
• are not specific and can target all cells of the body.
• All of the answer choices are correct.
• can cause damage to other organs and tissues.

Which of the following statements best describes how alkylating agents work as chemotherapy?

• Alkylating agents have no long term risks or side effects, making them useful tools for treating cancer.
• Alkylating agents work to prevent the cell from replicating its genetic material, preventing cell division.
• Alkylating agents insert themselves into the DNA of healthy cells, resulting in an increase in mitosis for healthy cells. These healthy cells can then help fight cancerous cells.
• Alkylating agents are not very precise and can insert into the DNA of any cell.

The following list describes ways that CRISPR may be used to treat cancer. Which of the following describes immunotherapy instead of CRISPR therapy?

• Mutated proto-oncogenes may have their previous function restored, allowing normal regulation of cell division.
• Cytotoxic T cells may be stimulated, creating an immune response against cancer cells and shrinking tumors.
• Nucleotides within DNA may be removed, inactivating genes that are responsible for some types of cancer.
• Mutated tumor-suppressor genes may have their previous function restored, allowing normal regulation of cell division.
• Cancer causing mutations within cells may be corrected, preventing cancer from occurring.

Which of the following is true concerning the checkpoints in the cell cycle?

• Mitosis stops if chromosomes are not properly aligned.
• Mitosis will still occur if the DNA is damaged or not replicated.
• Most cells that undergo mitosis cannot proceed through all the cell cycle checkpoints and end up undergoing apoptosis.
• The purpose of the cell cycle checkpoints is to ensure that mitosis results in haploid daughter cells.
• The G1 checkpoint is located at the tail end of the S phase of interphase.

Robert has a tumor on his brain that requires radiation. Before his treatment, doctors perform a CT scan so they can know where to target the beam of radiation. Robert’s head is shaved in that area and he receives a tiny circle tattoo to allow the radiation technicians to pinpoint the beam of radiation. What type of therapy is Robert receiving?

• interstitial brachytherapy
• external radiation therapy
• low-dose internal radiation therapy
• chemotherapy
• high-dose internal radiation therapy

CRISPR systems have been used in cancer treatments to

• inactivate faulty genes that are responsible for the cell cycle, causing them to slow down or stop cell division.
• activate genes that are responsible for the cell cycle, causing them to speed up cell division to replace cells lost to other cancer treatments.
• deliver radiation to individual cells within large, dense tumors.
• deliver packets of chemicals to tumors via genetically engineered red blood cells.

Which of the following describes a way that breast cancer influences the physiology of the body?

• Tumor growth that disrupts the ducts leading to the nipples may result in discharge leaking from the breasts.
• All of these choices are correct.
• Breast cancer may cause fatigue and a lack of energy.
• The lymph nodes underneath the arms may become swollen and painful to touch, indicating the cancer has invaded them.
• Metastasis to the bones of the body can cause bone pain and easy fracturing.
• Lumps may be found in breast tissue as tumors form and grow.

Alkylating agents work to prevent the cell from replicating its genetic material, thus preventing cell division. At which checkpoint would the cell most likely stop?

• S checkpoint
• G1 checkpoint
• M checkpoint
• G2 checkpoint

True or False: Once someone has been diagnosed with stage 4 cancer, there are no further treatment options that may help.

• True
• False

A woman inherits a mutant BRCA1 allele from her mother. She has an increased risk of developing breast cancer because

• the normal BRCA1 allele is more likely to mutate than in an individual without a mutant BRCA1 allele.
• a mutation in her normal BRCA1 allele may lead to cancer, whereas a normal individual would have to acquire two mutations (one in each allele) to develop cancer.
• every cell in the woman’s body has a copy of the mutant BRCA1 allele.
• she still has one normal allele of the BRCA1 gene that can make up for the loss of function in the mutant allele.
• some of the cells in her body are already cancerous, meaning that no further mutations are needed for a tumor to form.

Cells grown in a petri dish tend to divide until they form a thin layer covering the bottom of the dish. If cells are removed from the middle of the dish, the cells bordering the open space will begin dividing until they have filled the empty space. What does this experiment show?

• All of the answer choices are correct.
• The controls on cell growth and division can be turned on and off.
• Cell division can be regulated by factors outside of the cell.
• Cells continue to grow as long as there is adequate space.
• When cells come into contact with other cells, they stop growing.

All of the following statements describe methods to scan the body for cancer except for one. Select the method that is mismatched.

• Screening mammograms are routine X-rays of breast tissue for anyone over the age of 40 or those with a previous history of breast cancer.
• Diagnostic mammograms are detailed scans that look at specific areas of the breast, often after a suspicious lump is found.
• Positron Emission Tomography (PET) scans function to examine how cells of the body function. Sugars with a radioactive tracer are introduced to the body. Active cells take up more of the sugar and are therefore more visible on the scan.
• Computerized tomography (CT) scans use radio waves and magnets to obtain a detailed picture of organs within the body.

During the process of immunotherapy, cells are removed and genetically engineered with genes against tumors. This means that white blood cells will now

• target all cells of the body for destruction.
• display tumor antigens on their cell surface, stimulating cytotoxic T cells to attack tumor cells.
• display tumor antigens on their cell surface, meaning they will search and destroy any tumor cells.
• display tumor antigens on their cell surface, which will then be released near tumors. The antigens destroy the tumors.
• stimulate surrounding cells to slow down or stop cell division, shrinking tumors.

Which type of genes, when abnormally activated so that protein is always present and active, can result in cancer?

• tumor suppressor genes
• initiator caspase genes
• executioner caspase genes
• proto-oncogenes
• DNA repair protein genes

Of the following cancer stages, which one has the greatest potential for a positive outcome, including successful remission?

• stage 1B breast cancer
• stage 1A breast cancer
• stage 3C breast cancer
• stage 4 breast cancer
• stage 2B breast cancer

Which of the following is a characteristic of cancer cells?

• Cells that spend 90% of their lifetime in interphase.
• Cells undergo highly regulated cell division.
• Cells exhibit contact inhibition.
• Cells are able to differentiate and specialize.
• Cells with abnormal nuclei.

The following statements describe how cancer is staged. Which of the statements is true?

• Most cancers are grouped into stages 1-4; however, treatment options are only available for stages 1-3.
• Cancer is described based on the size of the tumor, if the tumor has invaded nearby tissues, if it has spread to lymph nodes, and if it has moved to other organs of the body.
• Once a cancer reaches each stage, it cannot be reversed, as tumors only grow in size, even with aggressive treatments.
• Cancer is described by ten stages, each with their own subdivisions. The lower the stage, the worse the prognosis.
If blood sugar levels drop below normal, the digestive system is primarily responsible for returning levels to normal.

This is an example of

• angiogenesis.
• metastasis.
• carcinogenesis.
• homeostasis.
• digestion.

Although cancer may originate in many regions of the body, many patients die from cancerous growth in the lungs, lymph glands, or liver. This is most readily explained as

• proteinase enzymes making cancer particularly damaging to these tissues.
• metastasis occurring more commonly in organs that have a filter effect.
• these organs simply being more susceptible to cancer.
• growth anywhere but in these organs is called benign.
• spreading of cancer by angiogenesis.



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    March 31, 2021

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    March 31, 2021